a1 DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Flow and transport through aquatic vegetation is characterized by a wide range of length scales: water depth (), plant height (), stem diameter (), the inverse of the plant frontal area per unit volume () and the scale(s) over which varies. Turbulence is generated both at the scale(s) of the mean vertical shear, set in part by , and at the scale(s) of the stem wakes, set by . While turbulence from each of these sources is dissipated through the energy cascade, some shear-scale turbulence bypasses the lower wavenumbers as shear-scale eddies do work against the form drag of the plant stems, converting shear-scale turbulence into wake-scale turbulence. We have developed a – model that accounts for all of these energy pathways. The model is calibrated against laboratory data from beds of rigid cylinders under emergent and submerged conditions and validated against an independent data set from submerged rigid cylinders and a laboratory data set from a canopy of live vegetation. The new model outperforms existing – models, none of which include the scale, both in the emergent rigid cylinder case, where existing – models break down entirely, and in the submerged rigid cylinder and live plant cases, where existing – models fail to predict the strong dependence of turbulent kinetic energy on . The new model is limited to canopies dense enough that dispersive fluxes are negligible.
(Received December 03 2010)
(Reviewed January 03 2012)
(Accepted February 25 2012)
(Online publication May 09 2012)