International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies

Research Papers

24GHz Digital beamforming radar with T-shaped antenna array for three-dimensional object detection

Marlene Hartera1a2 c1, Tom Schippera1, Lukasz Zwirelloa1, Andreas Ziroffa2 and Thomas Zwicka1

a1 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik (IHE), Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

a2 Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Corporate Research and Technologies, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 München, Germany


This paper introduces a radar system for three-dimensional (3D) object detection and imaging. The presented 3D measurement method combines the frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) approach for range measurements with a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique for digital beamforming in two dimensions. With an orthogonal arrangement of the antenna arrays for transmit and receive, the angular information is obtained in azimuth and elevation without mechanical beamsteering. The proposed principle allows performing 3D imaging by means of the acquired range, azimuth, and elevation information with a minimum of required hardware. Starting from the realization of the 3D radar imaging concept, the hardware architecture and the developed prototype are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the object detection capability of the 3D imaging radar system is demonstrated by measurements. The results show that the introduced 3D measurement concept in its realization is well suited for numerous applications.

(Received October 31 2011)

(Revised April 02 2012)


  • Radar architecture and systems;
  • Smart antennas;
  • Digital beamforming


c1 Corresponding author: M. Harter Email: