a1 University of Leeds
According to this account, the original name of the festival was Ἀθηναῖα, but this name had already been replaced by Παναθήναια in what we can regard only as having been still mythical times. Since Harpocration does not attempt to explain the nature or the purpose of the reforms which he ascribes to Erichthonius, the questions who really founded the Panathenaea and why do not arise on his account. All that need be said here is that the name Παναθήναια may mean one of two things: (a) a festival celebrated by ‘all-Athenians’ (cf. Πανιώνια) or (b) a festival in honour of Panathena (cf. Πάνδια). The most important point in Harpocration's statement, however, is the care with which he distinguishes between the two types of Panathenaic festival, that καθ' ἕκαστον ἐνιαυτόν and that διὰ πενταετηρίδος, ‘which they also called μεγάλα.’ The accuracy of his information on this point is demonstrated by official inscriptions, which speak of Παναθήναια τὰ μεγάλα (first in the Erythrae decree of 453–2—ATL ii. D10.3) and of Παναθήναια τὰ κατ' ἐνιαυτόν (IG ii–iii2. 334.31); the epithet μικρά describing the annual festival is found only in literature (Lysias 21.2, 4, referring to the celebrations of 409 and 403; Menander fr. 428 Körte). Even in official documents Παναθήναια can be used alone; but this usage is not so ambiguous as it appears, since, with the possible exception of IG i2. 302.58 (= Tod 75.61) of 415, which will have to be discussed later in this paper, I have not found a single case in which Παναθήναια alone necessarily, or even probably, refers to anything but the great Panathenaea.
1 This paper arose from certain comments on my article, ‘Peisistratus and Homer’ (TAPA, lxxxvi, 1955, 1–21), kindly sent me by Professor R. Hampe of Mainz. Professor Hampe, Mr. D. M. Lewis of Christ Church, Oxford, and Dr. M. van der Valk read drafts, and sent me most helpful comments. I have been helped on certain points by Professor T. B. L. Webster, Mr. A. N. Marlow of the University of Manchester, and Mr. A. G. Woodhead of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. The best way in which I can express my deep gratitude to them for their kindness is by making it clear that none of them should be supposed to agree with everything I have written.
In addition to the standard abbreviations (ABV, ARV, ATL, et sim.), I quote the following works by author's name and page (or other) reference alone: G. F. Hill, Sources for Greek History B.C. 478–4313, rev. R. Meiggs and A. Andrewes (1951); A. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen (1898); S. Papaspyridi-Karouzou AJA xlii (1938), 495 ff.; K. Peters, Studien zu den panathenäischen Preisamphoren (Diss. Köln, 1941); A. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis (1949); M. N. Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions i2 (1951); W. Zschietzschmann, JdI xlvi (1931), 45–60.