a1 Economics & Management Faculty, Hogeschool Universiteit Brussel, Warmoesberg 26, B-1000 Brussel,, Belgium. e-mail: email@example.com
a2 LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, University of Leuven (KUL), Waaistraat 6, box 3511, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transformed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidation, major shifts in consumption patterns, and the re-emergence of small breweries. (JEL Classification: N30, N40, L23, L66)
* We thank workshop participants at the Leuven Centre for Irish Studies (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), Thijs Vandemoortele, Giulia Meloni, and two anonymous referees for their valuable comments.