British Journal of Nutrition

Human and Clinical Nutrition

Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects

Bente Kirkhusa1a2 c1, Amandine Lamglaita2, Karl-Erik Eilertsena3, Eva Falcha2, Trond Haidera4, Hogne Vika5, Nils Hoema5, Tor-Arne Hagvea6a7, Samar Basua8a9, Elisabeth Olsena10, Ingebjørg Seljeflota11, Lena Nyberga12, Elisabeth Elinda13 and Stine M. Ulvena13

a1 Nofima AS, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Osloveien 1, 1430 Ås, Norway

a2 Mills DA, Oslo, Norway

a3 Faculty of Biosciences, Fishery and Economics, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

a4 Link Medical Research AS, Oslo, Norway

a5 Aker BioMarine Antarctic AS, Oslo, Norway

a6 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway

a7 Center of Laboratory Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

a8 Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-755 85, Sweden

a9 Laboratoire de Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire et Nutrition, Faculté de Pharmacy, Université d'Auvergne, 28 Place Henri-Dunant, 63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France

a10 Denomega Nutritional Oils, Sarpsborg, Norway

a11 Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway

a12 Skånemejerier, Malmø, Sweden

a13 Faculty of Health, Nutrition and Management, Akershus University College, Kjeller, Norway


There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

(Received October 19 2010)

(Revised July 13 2011)

(Accepted July 13 2011)

(Online publication September 15 2011)


c1 Corresponding author: Dr B. Kirkhus, fax +47 64 97 03 33, email


Abbreviations: AA, arachidonic acid; LC, long chain