a1 St. Thomas University
a2 Brock University
This article builds upon previous work on the impact of ransoming on processes of captivity, enslavement, and slavery in West Africa. Ransoming is defined as the release of a captive prior to enslavement in exchange for payment. It was a complicated process with no guarantee of success. This article examines the responses of families of captives to the failure of ransom negotiations. The ability to respond to failed ransom negotiations and the type of response chosen was dependent on the political climate and the resources available to those seeking the release of a captive.
* Earlier versions of this article were presented at the Tubman Seminar, York University, Toronto and at the 2011 Canadian Association of African Studies Conference. We are grateful to the participants at these meetings, especially Paul E. Lovejoy and Martin A. Klein, for their comments and suggestions. Our greatest appreciation is reserved for the journal's anonymous readers who provided us with such helpful comments and advice during the revision process.