British Journal of Nutrition

Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology

High disaccharide intake associates with atherogenic lipoprotein profile

Emily Sonestedta1 c1, Elisabet Wirfälta1, Peter Wallströma1, Bo Gullberga1, Isabel Drakea1, Joanna Hlebowicza1, Gunilla Nordin Fredriksona1, Bo Hedblada1, Jan Nilssona1, Ronald M. Kraussa2 and Marju Orho-Melandera1

a1 Department of Clinical Sciences – Malmö, Lund University, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden

a2 Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA


Increased plasma concentrations of small LDL particles denote an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) that is correlated with increased circulating TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol. Principal component analyses of subfraction concentrations have previously been used in the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort to identify three independent components, one pattern representing the ALP. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between macronutrient intakes and the principal component representing the ALP. We examined 4301 healthy subjects (46–68 years old, 60 % women) at baseline in the MDC cohort. Dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method. Plasma lipoprotein subfractions were measured using a high-resolution ion mobility method. The principal component corresponding to the ALP was significantly associated with a higher intake of disaccharides, and inversely related to protein and alcohol consumption (P < 0·001 for all). The present findings indicate that the ALP may be improved by a low intake of disaccharides, and moderate intakes of protein and alcohol.

(Received August 10 2010)

(Revised May 19 2011)

(Accepted June 16 2011)

(Online publication October 20 2011)


c1 Corresponding author: E. Sonestedt, fax +46 40 39 13 22, email


Abbreviations: ALP, atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype; E%, percentage of energy; HDL-C, HDL-cholesterol; LDL-C, LDL-cholesterol; MDC, Malmö Diet and Cancer; PC, principal component