a1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 USA
a2 Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, (UDELAR), Montevideo 11800, Uruguay
Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni are now available. The schistosome genome encodes ∼13 000 protein-encoding genes for which the functions of few are well understood. Nonetheless, the new genes represent potential intervention targets, and molecular tools are being developed to determine their importance. Over the past 15 years, noteworthy progress has been achieved towards development of tools for gene manipulation and transgenesis of schistosomes. A brief history of genetic manipulation is presented, along with a review of the field with emphasis on reports of integration of transgenes into schistosome chromosomes.
(Received June 24 2011)
(Revised July 18 2011)
(Accepted July 19 2011)
(Online publication August 19 2011)
c1 Corresponding author: Paul J. Brindley, Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Ross Hall, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 USA. Fax: +1 202 994 2913. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org