Epidemiology and Infection

Q fever and other zoonoses

Mapping the increasing risk of human alveolar echinococcosis in Limburg, The Netherlands

K. TAKUMIa1 c1, D. HEGGLINa2, P. DEPLAZESa2, B. GOTTSTEINa3, P. TEUNISa1 and J. VAN DER GIESSENa1

a1 RIVM, Center for Infectious Disease Control, The Netherlands

a2 Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Switzerland

a3 Institute of Parasitology, University of Bern, Switzerland

SUMMARY

The parasite Echinococcus multilocularis was first detected in The Netherlands in 1996 and repeated studies have shown that the parasite subsequently spread in the local population of foxes in the province of Limburg. It was not possible to quantify the human risk of alveolar echinococcosis because no relationship between the amount of parasite eggs in the environment and the probability of infection in humans was known. Here, we used the spread of the parasite in The Netherlands as a predictor, together with recently published historical records of the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in Switzerland, to achieve a relative quantification of the risk. Based on these analyses, the human risk in Limburg was simulated and up to three human cases are predicted by 2018. We conclude that the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in The Netherlands might have changed from a period of negligible risk in the past to a period of increasing risk in the forthcoming years.

(Accepted June 04 2011)

(Online publication July 07 2011)

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