a1 Materiales Dentales, Facultad de Odontología, Colegio Máximo, Campus de Cartuja sn, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
a2 Universidad de Zaragoza—Operatoria Dental, Calle Velodromo sn, Huesca, Huesca 22002, Spain
The aim was to study the effect of solvents on the phase separation of four commercial dental adhesives. Four materials were tested: ClearfilTM SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3), and One-Up Bond F Plus (OUB). Distilled water or ethanol was used as a solvent (30 vol%) for microphase separation studies, by stereoscopy. For nanophase images, the mixtures were formulated with two different solvent concentrations (2.5 versus 5 vol%) and observed by atomic force microscopy. Images were analyzed by using MacBiophotonics ImageJ to measure the area of bright domains. Macrophase separations, identified as a loss of clarity, were only observed after mixing the adhesives with water. Nanophase separations were detected with all adhesive combinations. The area of bright domains ranged from 132 to 1,145 nm2 for CSE, from 15 to 285 nm2 for CPB, from 149 to 380 nm2 for CS3, and from 26 to 157 nm2 for OUB. In water-resins mixtures, CPB was the most homogeneous and OUB showed the most heterogeneous phase formation. In ethanol-resin mixtures, CSE attained the most homogeneous structure and OUB showed the most heterogeneous phase. Addition of 5 vol% ethanol to resins decreased the nanophase separation when compared with the control materials.
(Received December 22 2010)
(Accepted September 30 2011)