a1 Institute of Humanities, Sciences and Technologies in Art, Academy of Fine Arts, Schillerplatz 3, A-1010 Vienna Austria
An overview of the techniques used in art and archaeology is presented and the applicability of X-ray radiography, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as a tool for nondestructive investigations of objects of art and archaeology is discussed. X-ray radiography, for example, is a standard technique widely used and accepted by art historians, archaeologists, curators, and conservators as this method enables information about the manufacturing process and the condition of an object without “touching” the artifact. XRF and XRD enable a nondestructive determination of the material composition of artifacts and the determination of the crystalline structure of the components too. Air path systems and instruments with the micro-beam of X-ray and synchrotron radiation were applied for the analysis of easel paintings, pigments in paint layers, glass artifacts, and coins.
(Received September 03 2003)
(Accepted December 30 2003)