Parasitology

Research Article

Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units in Chagas disease patients from endemic and non-endemic regions of Argentina

C. I. CURAa1, R. H. LUCEROa2, M. BISIOa1, E. OSHIROa3, L. B. FORMICHELLIa2, J. M. BURGOSa4, S. LEJONAa5, B. L. BRUSÉSa2, D. O. HERNÁNDEZa6, G. V. SEVERINIa6, E. VELAZQUEZa7, T. DUFFYa1, E. ANCHARTa5, R. LATTESa8, J. ALTCHEHa9, H. FREILIJa9, M. DIEZa10, C. NAGELa10, C. VIGLIANOa10, L. FAVALOROa10, R. R. FAVALOROa10, D. E. MERINOa2, S. SOSA-ESTANIa3a7 and A. G. SCHIJMANa1 c1

a1 Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de la Enfermedad de Chagas, Instituto de Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular (INGEBI-CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2do piso, 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

a2 Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Av. Las Heras 727, 3500, Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina

a3 Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico e Investigación de Endemo-epidemias (CeNDIE), ANLIS Malbrán, Av. Paseo Colón 568, 1063, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

a4 Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, 1121, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

a5 Área de Biología Molecular, Centro de Especialidades Médicas Ambulatorias (CEMAR), San Luis 2020, 2000, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

a6 Consultorio de Chagas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Moreno 1240, 3400, Corrientes, Argentina

a7 Instituto Nacional de Parasitología Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben, Av. Paseo Colón 568, 1063, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

a8 Instituto de Nefrología, Cabello 3889, 1425, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

a9 Servicio de Parasitología y Enfermedad de Chagas, Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Gallo 1330, 1425, Buenos Aires, Argentina

a10 Unidad de Trasplante Cardíaco, Hospital Universitario Fundación Favaloro, Av. Belgrano 1746, 1093, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

SUMMARY

Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi may play a role in pathogenesis of Chagas disease forms. Natural populations are classified into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) Tc I-VI with taxonomical status. This study aimed to identify T. cruzi DTUs in bloodstream and tissue samples of Argentinean patients with Chagas disease. PCR-based strategies allowed DTU identification in 256 clinical samples from 239 Argentinean patients. Tc V prevailed in blood from both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases and Tc I was more frequent in bloodstream, cardiac tissues and chagoma samples from immunosuppressed patients. Tc II and VI were identified in a minority of cases, while Tc III and Tc IV were not detected in the studied population. Interestingly, Tc I and Tc II/VI sequences were amplified from the same skin biopsy slice from a kidney transplant patient suffering Chagas disease reactivation. Further data also revealed the occurrence of mixed DTU populations in the human chronic infection. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the complexity of the dynamics of T. cruzi diversity in the natural history of human Chagas disease and allege the pathogenic role of DTUs I, II, V and VI in the studied population.

(Received August 26 2011)

(Revised October 28 2011)

(Accepted October 31 2011)

(Online publication February 06 2012)

Correspondence:

c1 Corresponding author: Vuelta de Obligado 2490, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina. Tel: +54 11 47832871. Fax: +54 11 47868576. E-mail: schijman@dna.uba.ar

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