a1 Cardiology Department, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
Background Complications at the vascular access sites are among the most common adverse events in congenital cardiac catheterization. The use of small-gauge catheters may reduce these events; however, other factors can contribute to the development of vascular complications.
Objectives To determine factors associated with the development of vascular access complications in children undergoing congenital cardiac catheterization.
Methods We performed a prospective study of 403 patients who underwent diagnostic (62.5%) or interventional (37.5%) cardiac catheterization over a period of 6 months, and analysed the vascular complications during and immediately after the procedure.
Results The most common access-related adverse event was transient loss of pulsation (17.6%). Other less common access-related adverse events included subcutaneous haematoma (2%), bleeding (3%), vessel tear (0.2%), and vein thrombosis (0.2%). Patients who had no access-related adverse events had significantly higher age and body weight compared with those who had one or more access problems. Among 81 patients who had vascular access established in unplanned access sites, 30 patients (37%) had lost pulsations. Among the 322 patients who had vascular access established in planned access sites, however, only 41 patients had lost pulsation (13%). In addition, patients who had lost pulsations had significantly longer puncture time compared to those who had normal pulsations (p value 0.01).
Conclusion Factors other than sheath size can contribute to access-related adverse events in children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Obtaining vascular access in unplanned access sites and longer puncture times increases the incidence of lost pulsations after catheterization. Younger age and smaller body weight are also associated with significant increase in access-related adverse events.
(Received October 29 2010)
(Accepted June 08 2011)
(Online publication July 25 2011)
c1 Correspondence to: Dr A. M. Roushdy, MD, Cardiology Department, Ain Shams University Hospital, Abbassya, 21 Gamal El deen Dweedar Street, Nasr City, Cairo P0 11371, Egypt. Tel: 202 26713560; Fax: 202 24820416; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org