Powder Diffraction

Technical Articles

X-ray diffraction imaging of dislocation generation related to microcracks in Si wafers

J. Wittgea1, A. Danilewskya1, D. Allena2, P. McNallya2, Z. J. Lia3, T. Baumbacha3, E. Gorostegui-Colinasa4, J. Garagorria4, M. R. Elizaldea4, D. Jacquesa5, M. C. Fossatia6, D. K. Bowena6 and B. K. Tannera6 c1

a1 Kristallographie, Geowiss. Institut, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

a2 Research Institute for Networks and Communications Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland

a3 Research Centre Karlsruhe, Institut für Synchrotronstrahlung, Karlsruhe, Germany

a4 Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian, Spain

a5 Jordan Valley Semiconductor (UK), Durham DH1 1TW, United Kingdom

a6 Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom

Abstract

The nucleation of dislocations at indents in silicon following rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been examined by X-ray diffraction imaging (topography). For indentation loads below 200 mN, no slip bands were generated from the indent sites following RTA at 1000 °C under spike conditions. Upon plateau annealing at 1000 °C, slip dislocations were propagated from some indents but not all. Slip was also observed from edge defects not associated with indentation. For 500-mN indentation load, large scale dislocation sources were generated from the indent sites propagating on two of the four {111} slip planes. These dislocations multiplied into macroscopic-scale slip bands. A significant change in morphology was observed in the 60° dislocation segments after the screw segment reached the rear surface of the wafer. Dislocations changed line direction and in some cases appeared to leave the Peierls trough during glide.

(Received February 22 2010)

(Accepted February 24 2010)

Key Words:

  • X-ray diffraction imaging;
  • topography;
  • dislocation source

Correspondence:

c1 Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: b.k.tanner@durham.ac.uk