a1 Theoretical Biology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands. [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] http://www.rug.nl/fmns-research/theobio
Lab experiments on punishment are of limited relevance for understanding cooperative behavior in the real world. In real interactions, punishment is not cheap, but the costs of punishment are of a different nature than in experiments. They do not correspond to direct payments or payoff deductions, but they arise from the repercussions punishment has on social networks and future interactions.