Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Short Communication

Where's the beef? Evidence of culture, imitation, and teaching, in cetaceans?

Bennett G. Galef Jr. a1
a1 Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton,L8S 4K, Ontario, Canada


Vocal imitation does not imply an ability to imitate nonvocal motor patterns. Exponential growth in frequency of a behaviour in a population does not imply diffusion by social learning. Distinguishing analogues from homologues of human culture will avoid confusion in discussion of evolution of culture. Original sources do not demonstrate social learning, imitation, or teaching of intentional beaching or lobtail feeding in cetaceans.