Cardiology in the Young

Part 1: A Holistic Approach to Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Primary care cardiology for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Jeffrey R. Borisa1 c1

a1 Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America


Primary care cardiology is also known as ambulatory cardiology and outpatient cardiology. Primary care cardiology for the longitudinal management of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is both poorly described and has limited evidence to justify its basis. This article briefly discusses the various complications that these patients can develop, reviews the medical literature, and describes a framework for the care of these complex patients from infancy to transition to care by specialists in adults with congenital cardiac disease.

(Online publication December 13 2011)