MRS Bulletin

Laser micro- and nanofabrication of biomaterials

Laser micro- and nanofabrication of biomaterials

Integrated microchips for biological analysis fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

Koji Sugiokaa1 and Ya Chenga2

a1 Riken Advanced Science Institute;

a2 Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences;


Microchips have revolutionized biological analysis since they can be used to perform biochemical analysis with high efficiency and accuracy. Femtosecond laser direct writing followed by wet chemical etching can be used to fabricate hollow microstructures with almost any three-dimensional (3D) structure without stacking or bonding. This permits microfluidic systems to be integrated with micro-optical components (e.g., mirrors and lenses) and micromechanical components (e.g., valves and pumps) in a glass chip by a single continuous process. Furthermore, other micro-optical components such as optical waveguides and attenuators can be integrated by additional femtosecond laser direct writing. Thus, femtosecond laser direct writing can be used to fabricate functional microfluidics, optofluidics, lab-on-a-chip devices, and micro-total analysis systems. In this study, 3D femtosecond laser micromachining is used to fabricate microchips integrated with functional microcomponents for biological analysis. Optofluidic systems, in which microfluidic components are integrated with micro-optical components, are used to detect single cells and perform high-sensitivity analysis of liquid samples by optical methods. Another interesting microchip is introduced, namely nanoaquariums, which is used for performing dynamic observations of microorganisms and bacteria and allows the functions of microorganisms and bacteria to be determined, such as elucidation of the gliding mechanism of Phormidium to seedling roots for growth acceleration of vegetables.

(Online publication December 14 2011)

Key Words:

  • Laser-induced reaction;
  • machining;
  • microstructure;
  • fluidics