Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics

Special Section: Open Forum

Whoopie Pies, Supersized Fries

“Just” Snacking? “Just” Des(s)erts?


The annual cost of healthcare in the United States reached $2.5 trillion in 2009 (about 17.6% of GDP) with projections to 2019 of about $4.5 trillion (about 20% of likely GDP).

Leonard M. Fleck, Ph.D., is Professor of Philosophy and Medical Ethics at the Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University. He is the author of the book Just Caring: Health Care Rationing and Democratic Deliberation (Oxford University Press, 2009).


I wish to offer a special word of thanks to the Brocher Foundation in Geneva, Switzerland, for their generous support during the writing of this essay.