British Journal of Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition

Effect of anthocyanins on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in naproxen-induced gastric ulcers

Sun-Joong Kima1, Young Sam Parka1, Hyun-Dong Paika2 and Hyo Ihl Changa1 c1

a1 College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, South Korea

a2 Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Hwayng-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, South Korea


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause gastric ulceration through a number of mechanisms including inhibition of PG synthesis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of apoptosis. Recently, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been suggested to play a crucial role in these mechanisms. The present study investigated the protective effect of anthocyanins isolated from black rice bran (Heugjinjubyeo) against naproxen-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The oral administration of anthocyanins (5, 25 or 50 mg/kg body weight) showed significant protection against naproxen (80 mg/kg body weight)-induced gastric ulcer and inhibited lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa. In addition, pretreatment with anthocyanins resulted in a significant increase in the activities of radical-scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Also biochemical and zymographic analyses suggested that the administration of anthocyanins gives a significant protection against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer through scavenging ROS and regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. The results of intracellular radical activation show that anthocyanins suppress the generation of intracellular ROS and attenuate the suppression of MMP-2 activity by naproxen. These results suggest that anthocyanins extracted from black rice may offer potential remedy of gastric antral ulceration.

(Received September 22 2010)

(Revised February 28 2011)

(Accepted March 25 2011)

(Online publication June 23 2011)


c1 Corresponding author: Dr Hyo Ihl Chang, fax +82 2 3290 3421, email


Abbreviations: ECM, extracellular matrix; H2DCFDA, 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase; Tris, 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol