Journal of Navigation

Research Article

A Novel Un-differenced PPP-RTK Concept

Baocheng Zhanga1 c1, Peter J.G. Teunissena2a3 c2 and Dennis Odijka2

a1 (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China)

a2 (GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia)

a3 (Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)


In this contribution, a novel un-differenced (UD) (PPP-RTK) concept, i.e. a synthesis of Precise Point Positioning and Network-based Real-Time Kinematic concept, is introduced. In the first step of our PPP-RTK approach, the UD GNSS observations from a regional reference network are processed based upon re-parameterised observation equations, corrections for satellite clocks, phase biases and (interpolated) atmospheric delays are calculated and provided to users. In the second step, these network-based corrections are used at the user site to restore the integer nature of his UD phase ambiguities, which makes rapid and high accuracy user positioning possible. The proposed PPP-RTK approach was tested using two GPS CORS networks with inter-station distances ranging from 60 to 100 km. The first test network is the northern China CORS network and the second is the Australian Perth CORS network. In the test of the first network, a dual-frequency PPP-RTK user receiver was used, while in the test of the second network, a low-cost, single-frequency PPP-RTK user receiver was used. The performance of fast ambiguity resolution and the high accuracy positioning of the PPP-RTK results are demonstrated.

(Online publication October 14 2011)


  • GNSS;
  • PPP-RTK;
  • Integer Ambiguity Resolution;
  • Satellite Phase Bias


c1 (Email:

c2 (Email: