Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing

Special Issue Articles

Considering multiscale scenes to elucidate problems encumbering three-dimensional intellection and navigation

Michael Gluecka1 c1 and Azam Khana1

a1 Autodesk Research, Toronto, Canada


Virtual three-dimensional (3-D) environments have become pervasive tools in a number of professional and recreational tasks. However, interacting with these environments can be challenging for users, especially as these environments increase in complexity and scale. In this paper, we argue that the design of 3-D interaction techniques is an ill-defined problem. This claim is elucidated through the context of data-rich and geometrically complex multiscale virtual 3-D environments, where unexpected factors can encumber intellection and navigation. We develop an abstract model to guide our discussion, which illustrates the cyclic relationship of understanding and navigating; a relationship that supports the iterative refinement of a consistent mental representation of the virtual environment. Finally, we highlight strategies to support the design of interactions in multiscale virtual environments, and propose general categories of research focus.

(Received September 18 2010)

(Accepted February 07 2011)

(Online publication October 12 2011)


  • Camera;
  • Intellection;
  • Multiscale;
  • Navigation;
  • Perception;
  • Three-Dimensional


c1 Reprint requests to: Michael Glueck, Autodesk Research, 210 King Street East, Toronto, ON M5A1J7, Canada. E-mail: