British Journal of Nutrition

Behaviour, Appetite and Obesity

Effects of food form on food intake and postprandial appetite sensations, glucose and endocrine responses, and energy expenditure in resistance trained v. sedentary older adults

John W. Apolzana1a2a3 p1, Heather J. Leidya4, Richard D. Mattesa1a2 and Wayne W. Campbella1a2a3 c1

a1 Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

a2 Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

a3 Center on Aging and the Life Course, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

a4 Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA


Limited research has suggested that the food form of nutritional supplements (FFNS) and resistance training (RT) influence ingestive behaviour and energy balance in older adults. The effects of the FFNS and RT on acute appetitive, endocrine and metabolic responses are not adequately documented. The present study assessed the effects of the FFNS and RT on postprandial appetite sensations (hunger and fullness), endocrine responses (plasma insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)), metabolism (glucose, energy expenditure and RER) and food intake (satiation) in older adults. On separate days, eighteen sedentary (Sed) and sixteen RT healthy adults (age 62–84 years) consumed 12·5 % of their energy need as an isoenergetic- and macronutrient-matched solid or beverage. Postprandial responses were assessed over 4 h. No RT × FFNS interactions were observed for any parameter. Fasting cholecystokinin was higher in the RT v. Sed group (P < 0·05). RT did not influence fullness, but fullness was higher following the solid v. beverage intake (P < 0·01). Neither RT nor FFNS influenced hunger. Glucose and insulin were higher after the solid v. beverage intake (P < 0·01). Ghrelin, GLP-1 and energy expenditure were not different between the RT and FFNS groups. Postprandial cholecystokinin was higher in the RT v. Sed group (P < 0·01) and for solid v. beverage (P < 0·05). RER was lower for solid v. beverage (P < 0·001). Neither RT nor FFNS independently or interactively influenced food intake 2 h after post-nutritional supplements. In conclusion, RT had little influence on ingestive behaviour. The appetitive and endocrine responses suggested the solid-promoted satiety; however, the FFNS did not alter subsequent food intake.

(Received October 07 2010)

(Revised February 09 2011)

(Accepted February 10 2011)

(Online publication April 15 2011)


c1 Corresponding author: W. W. Campbell, fax +1 765 494 0674, email

p1 Present address: Department of Physiology, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.


Abbreviations: AUC, area under the curve; CCK, cholecystokinin; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; RT, resistance training/trained; Sed, sedentary