a1 School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK
a2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
A constitutive model is developed for the complex rheology of rate-independent granular materials. The closures for the pressure and the macroscopic friction coefficient are linked to microstructure through evolution equations for coordination number and fabric. The material constants in the model are functions of particle-level properties and are calibrated using data generated through simulations of steady and unsteady simple shear using the discrete element method (DEM). This model is verified against DEM simulations at complex loading conditions.
(Received May 19 2010)
(Revised December 27 2010)
(Accepted June 01 2011)
(Online publication July 15 2011)