a1 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Av Doutor Arnaldo 715, PO Box 01246-904, São Paulo, Brazil
a2 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Objective To estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among adolescents and the association between socio-economic variables and nutritional status.
Design Cross-sectional study with a population-based sample.
Settings The usual nutrient intake distribution was estimated using the Iowa State University method. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-off point method was used to determine the proportion of adolescents with inadequate intake for each nutrient, according to sex, income, parental educational level and nutritional status.
Subjects Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were applied in 525 male and female Brazilian adolescents aged 14–18 years.
Results The highest prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was observed for vitamin E (99 % in both sexes). For male and female adolescents, the prevalence of inadequate intake was: Mg, 89 % and 84 %; vitamin A, 78 % and 71 %; vitamin C, 79 % and 53 %; and vitamin B6, 21 % and 33 %, respectively. The prevalence of inadequate intake for niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, Se, Cu and vitamin B12 was <15 %. Individuals in the lower income and lower parental educational level strata had the highest risk of having inadequate intake for P, riboflavin and vitamins A, B6 and B12. Compared with non-overweight individuals, overweight individuals had a higher risk of inadequate intake for Mg, vitamin A, P, thiamin and riboflavin.
Conclusions The present study found a high prevalence of inadequate intake of nutrients that are recognised as being protective against chronic diseases. Adolescents in the lower income and lower parental educational level strata were less likely to have their nutrient intake requirements met.
(Received October 04 2010)
(Accepted February 25 2011)
(Online publication May 04 2011)