a1 Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Many swimming microorganisms are able to propel themselves by the organized beating motion of numerous short flagella or cilia attached to their body surface. For their small size and the inherently viscous nature of the motion, this mechanism is very effective and they can swim several body lengths per second. The quest has been to see if artificial cilia may be developed and if the strategy of cilia propulsion can be used in microfluidic devices to transport fluids in a localized and controllable manner. Babataheri et al. (J. Fluid Mech., this issue, vol. 678, 2011, pp. 5–13) explore the response of chains of small paramagnetic beads that are elastically bonded together to form artificial cilia. The chain or fleximag is tethered to the surface and driven by external magnetic fields, responding also to both fluid and elastic forces. A key observation from their experiments and model is that for a simple planar-forcing strategy there is a hidden symmetry that limits the net transport of fluid.