Palliative and Supportive Care

Original Articles

Developing the social distress scale for head and neck cancer outpatients in Japan

Minako Denoa1 c1, Mie Tashiroa2, Mitsunori Miyashitaa3, Takahiro Asakagea4, Koji Takahashia5, Kenich Saitoa6, Yasunobu Busujimaa7, Yoshiyuki Moria8, Hiroto Saitoa9 and Yuji Ichikawaa10

a1 Ando Laboratory, Advanced Research Centers, Keio University, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, Japan

a2 Showa University School of Dentistry, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a3 Division of Palliative Nursing, Health Sciences, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a4 Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a5 Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Showa University School of Dentistry, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a6 Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Kanto Medical Center NTT EC, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a7 Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital, Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a8 Department of Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a9 Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation Ebara Hospital, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan

a10 Department of Oral Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation Toshima Hospital, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract

Objective: This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a scale used to measure social distress in Japanese head and neck cancer outpatients with facial disfigurement.

Method: The sample included 225 Japanese outpatients with head and neck cancer, including 129 patients with facial disfigurement. Participants' level of social distress was assessed through our scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer questionnaire (EORTC) QLQ-H&N35 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS).

Results: Factor analyses confirmed the structure of two subscales of the social distress scale. Social distress was significantly correlated with the social contact subscale of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and the HADS.

Significance of results: Results demonstrated preliminary reliability and validity of the social distress scale. This scale may extend social adjustment research by revealing its determinants and effects for head and neck cancer with facial disfigurement in Japan.

(Received August 24 2010)

(Accepted September 22 2010)

Correspondence:

c1 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Minako Deno, Ando Laboratory, Faculty of Letters, Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, 108-8345 Japan. E-mail: denominako@a5.keio.jp