a1 Ando Laboratory, Advanced Research Centers, Keio University, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, Japan
a2 Showa University School of Dentistry, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a3 Division of Palliative Nursing, Health Sciences, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a4 Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a5 Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Showa University School of Dentistry, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a6 Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Kanto Medical Center NTT EC, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a7 Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital, Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a8 Department of Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a9 Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation Ebara Hospital, Oota-ku, Tokyo, Japan
a10 Department of Oral Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation Toshima Hospital, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Objective: This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a scale used to measure social distress in Japanese head and neck cancer outpatients with facial disfigurement.
Method: The sample included 225 Japanese outpatients with head and neck cancer, including 129 patients with facial disfigurement. Participants' level of social distress was assessed through our scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer questionnaire (EORTC) QLQ-H&N35 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS).
Results: Factor analyses confirmed the structure of two subscales of the social distress scale. Social distress was significantly correlated with the social contact subscale of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and the HADS.
Significance of results: Results demonstrated preliminary reliability and validity of the social distress scale. This scale may extend social adjustment research by revealing its determinants and effects for head and neck cancer with facial disfigurement in Japan.
(Received August 24 2010)
(Accepted September 22 2010)