a1 Germplasm Base Bank, Institute of Biological Resources, CIRN, CNIA-INTA, N. Repetto and Los Reseros s/n (B1686EYR), Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina
a2 Plant Production Department and CONICET, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires, Av. San Martín 4453 (C1417DSE), Buenos Aires, Argentina
a3 Plant Production Department and IFEVA, Faculty of Agronomy and CONICET, University of Buenos Aires, Av. San Martín 4453 (C1417DSE), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a serious risk when adapting quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed production to different temperate environments. Two quinoa accessions, ‘2-Want’ and ‘Chadmo’ were evaluated under field conditions in the Argentinean pampas over 2 years on five different sowing dates, to explore a range of climate conditions under which seed filling is manageable in this region. Both accessions exhibited dormancy during seed development and maturation under the conditions examined; however, dormancy expression was restricted to low temperatures in 2-Want, while seeds of Chadmo, originating from the humid island of Chiloe, southern Chile, expressed a high level of dormancy at all examined temperatures. Dormancy release was observed as a reduction in the lowest temperature permissible for seed germination, which broadened the optimal germination temperature window. Higher storage temperature increased the rate of dormancy release. The environment during seed development on the mother plant affected the levels and patterns of seed dormancy, with higher temperatures and longer photoperiods promoting dormancy. As dormancy was released before the next production period, the levels of dormancy observed in the accession would allow timely planting and uniform germination, while dormancy during seed maturation ensures the prevention of PHS. Chadmo showed deeper dormancy levels in all situations, compared with 2-Want, therefore greater PHS tolerance under various conditions in the pampas region can be expected for Chadmo, which makes this accession a better candidate to be included in adaptive breeding programmes for quinoa.
(Received September 08 2010)
(Accepted January 18 2011)
(Online publication February 15 2011)