British Journal of Nutrition

Metabolism and Metabolic Studies

Modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin–nicotinamide diabetic rats

Hafez R. Madkora1, Sherif W. Mansoura1 and Gamal Ramadana2a3 c1

a1 Biomedical Science Department, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Hufof, KSA

a2 Biological Science Department, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hufof, KSA

a3 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbasseya 11566, Cairo, Egypt


Spices which show hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities may have a role in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. The present study aimed to compare the modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on the metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg body weight, 15 min before STZ injection). Diabetic rats orally received either distilled water (as vehicle) or 200 mg/kg body weight of garlic bulb, ginger rhizome or turmeric rhizome powder suspension separately or mixed together (GGT mixture) for twenty-eight consecutive days. The results showed that these spices and their mixture significantly alleviated (80–97 %, P < 0·05–0·001) signs of the metabolic syndrome (hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia), the elevation in atherogenic indices and cellular toxicity in STZ–nicotinamide diabetic rats by increasing the production of insulin (26–37 %), enhancing the antioxidant defence system (31–52 %, especially GSH) and decreasing lipid peroxidation (60–97 %). The greatest modulation was seen in diabetic rats that received garlic and the GGT mixture (10–23 % more than that in the ginger and turmeric groups). In conclusion, garlic or the mix including garlic appears to have an impact on each of the measures more effectively than ginger and turmeric and may have a role in alleviating the risks of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications.

(Received May 25 2010)

(Revised October 28 2010)

(Accepted October 29 2010)

(Online publication December 10 2010)


c1 Corresponding author: G. Ramadan, fax +20 2 26842123, email


Abbreviations: ALAT, alanine aminotransferase; GGT mixture, mixture of garlic, ginger and turmeric; STZ, streptozotocin; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances