British Journal of Nutrition

Metabolism and Metabolic Studies

Influence of the dietary protein:lipid ratio and fish oil substitution on fatty acid composition and metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared at high water temperatures

Vasileios Karalazosa1, Eldar Å. Bendiksena2, James R. Dicka1, Douglas R. Tochera1 and John Gordon Bella1 c1

a1 Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK

a2 BioMar AS, Nordre Gate 11, N-7484 Trondheim, Norway


A factorial, two-way, experimental design was used for this 10-week nutritional trial, aiming to elucidate the interactive effects of decreasing dietary protein:lipid level and substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO) on tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at high water temperatures (sub-optimal, summer temperatures: 11·6°C). The six experimental diets were isoenergetic and formulated to include either FO or RO (60 % of the added oil) at three dietary protein:lipid levels, specifically (1) 350 g/kg protein and 350 g/kg lipid, (2) 330 g/kg protein and 360 g/kg lipid, (3) 290 g/kg protein and 380 g/kg lipid. Final weight, specific growth rate and thermal growth coefficient were positively affected by the dietary RO inclusion at the expense of FO, while no significant effects were seen on growth due to the decreasing protein level. The oil source had a significant effect on muscle and liver FA composition. However, the changes in muscle and liver FA indicate selective utilisation or retention of individual FA and moderate reductions in tissue EPA and DHA. Pyloric caeca phospholipid FA composition was significantly affected by the two factors and, in some cases, significant interactions were also revealed. Liver and red muscle β-oxidation capacities were significantly increased due to RO inclusion, while an interactive effect of protein level and oil source was shown for white muscle β-oxidation capacity. The results could explain, at least partially, the better performance that was shown for the RO groups and the enhanced protein-sparing effect.

(Received July 23 2010)

(Revised October 07 2010)

(Accepted October 12 2010)

(Online publication December 17 2010)


c1 Corresponding author: Professor J. G. Bell, fax +44 1786 472133, email


Abbreviations: FA, fatty acid; FCR, feed conversion ratio; FM, fishmeal; FO, fish oil; HP, high protein; LP, low protein; MP, medium protein; PL, phospholipid; PPV, protein productive value; RO, rapeseed oil; VO, vegetable oil