a1 School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
a2 School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
Numerical simulations of turbulent fountain flow are used to investigate the important energy and mass transfer mechanisms present in the forced fountain flow regime, which has been reported to exist at Froude numbers (Fr) greater than 3. The flow is equivalent to a negatively buoyant jet with three flow streams, the inner upflow (IF), the outer downflow (OF) and the surrounding ambient fluid (AF). Simulation results are presented for Fr = 4 and 7 at Reynolds number Re = 3350. The mean fountain penetration height scales with the previously reported relation Zm/R0 = 2.46Fr, where R0 is the source radius, but the assumptions behind analytical derivations of the relation are not supported by the present results. The results suggest that the OF may be relatively well described by the dynamics of a pure line plume surrounding the IF but with higher entrainment owing to the unsteady pulsing behaviour of the flow entering the OF from the IF. The length scale for a pure plume appears to apply at Fr = 7 in the OF and a degree of self-similarity exists. Comparisons with previous results suggest the IF is not fully developed at Fr = 7 and entrainment into the IF from the OF may not occur until Fr > 15.
(Received June 03 2010)
(Revised October 19 2010)
(Accepted November 08 2010)
(Online publication February 08 2011)