a1 Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Department of Human Physiology, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 13 Universitetsparken, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
The first putative fatty acid transporter identified was plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm). Later it was demonstrated that this protein is identical to the mitochondrial isoform of the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase. In recent years data from several cell types have emerged, indicating that FABPpm plays a role in the transport of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. In the limited number of studies in human skeletal muscle it has been demonstrated that dietary composition and exercise training can influence the content of FABPpm. Ingestion of a fat-rich diet induces an increase in FABPpm protein content in human skeletal muscle in contrast to the decrease seen during consumption of a carbohydrate-rich diet. A similar effect of a fat-rich diet is also observed for cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein and fatty acid translocase/CD36 protein expression. Exercise training up regulates FABPpm protein content in skeletal muscle, but only in male subjects; no significant differences were observed in muscle FABPpm content in a cross-sectional study of female volunteers of varying training status, even though muscle FABPpm content did not depend on gender in the untrained state. A higher utilization of plasma long-chain fatty acids during exercise in males compared with females could explain the gender-dependent influence of exercise training on FABPpm. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of the function and expression of FABPpm protein remain to be clarified.