Journal of Materials Research


Compositional Tailored Sol-Gel SiO2–TiO2 Thin Films: Crystallization, Chemical Bonding Configuration, and Optical Properties

Li-Lan Yanga1, Yi-Sheng Laia1, J.S. Chena1, P.H. Tsaia2, C.L. Chena2 and C. Jason Changa2

a1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University,Tainan, Taiwan, People’s Republic of China

a2 Electronics Research & Service Organization, Industrial Technology Research Institute,Hsinchu, Taiwan, People’s Republic of China


Thin films of SiO2–TiO2 composite oxides with various SiO2:TiO2 compositions were prepared by the sol-gel method, using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as precursors. The composition, crystal structure, and chemical bonding configuration of the as-deposited and annealed SiO2–TiO2 thin films were analyzed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), glancing incident angle x-ray diffraction (GIAXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Optical properties of the films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The Si/Ti ratios in the SiO2–TiO2 films agree with the TEOS/TTIP molar ratio in the sol-gel precursor. When the TEOS/(TEOS + TTIP) ratio is greater than 40%, the SiO2–TiO2 thin films remain amorphous (without formation of TiO2 crystalline phase) after annealing at temperatures as high as 700 °C. FTIR spectra indicate that the quantity of Si–O–Ti bonding can be maximized when the TEOS:TTIP in the precursor is 80%:20%. The refractive index of the SiO2–TiO2 films increases approximately linearly to the mixing ratio of TTIP/(TEOS + TTIP). However, SiO2-rich films possess higher ultraviolet-visible transmittance than the TiO2-rich films. The modification of microstructure and chemical bonding configuration in the SiO2–TiO2 films by the composition and its influence on the optical properties are discussed.

(Received May 16 2005)

(Accepted August 18 2005)

Key Words:

  • Optical properties;
  • Sol-gel;
  • Thin film


c1 Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: