Journal of Materials Research


Preparation of (Pb,Ba)TiO3 powders and highly oriented thin films by a sol-gel process

Stacey W. Bolanda1, Suresh C. Pillaia1, Wein-Duo Yanga1 and Sossina M. Hailea1 c1

a1 Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125


Solid solution Pb1-xBaxTiO3, with particular emphasis on Pb0.5Ba0.5TiO3, was prepared using a sol-gel process incorporating lead acetate trihydrate, barium acetate, and titanium isopropoxide as precursors, acetylacetone (2,4 pentanedione) as a chelating agent, and ethylene glycol as a solvent. The synthesis procedure was optimized by systematically varying acetylacetone: Ti and H2O:Ti molar ratios and calcination temperature. The resulting effects on sol and powder properties were studied using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystallization of the perovskite structure occurred at a temperature as low as 450 °C. Thin films were prepared by spin coating on (100) MgO. Pyrolysis temperature and heating rate were varied, and the resultant film properties investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and XRD. Under optimized conditions, highly oriented films were obtained at a crystallization temperature of 600 °C.

(Received September 17 2003)

(Accepted February 09 2004)

Key Words:

  • Ferroelectric;
  • Sol-gel;
  • Thin film


c1 Address all correspondence to this author.e-mail: