a1 Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125
Solid solution Pb1-xBaxTiO3, with particular emphasis on Pb0.5Ba0.5TiO3, was prepared using a sol-gel process incorporating lead acetate trihydrate, barium acetate, and titanium isopropoxide as precursors, acetylacetone (2,4 pentanedione) as a chelating agent, and ethylene glycol as a solvent. The synthesis procedure was optimized by systematically varying acetylacetone: Ti and H2O:Ti molar ratios and calcination temperature. The resulting effects on sol and powder properties were studied using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystallization of the perovskite structure occurred at a temperature as low as 450 °C. Thin films were prepared by spin coating on (100) MgO. Pyrolysis temperature and heating rate were varied, and the resultant film properties investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and XRD. Under optimized conditions, highly oriented films were obtained at a crystallization temperature of 600 °C.
(Received September 17 2003)
(Accepted February 09 2004)