Journal of Materials Research


Nanotubes Patterned Thin Films of Barium-strontium Titanate

Xuezheng Weia1, Alexander L. Vasilieva1 and Nitin P. Padturea1 c1

a1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136


A novel, low-temperature synthesis method for producing BaxSr(1−x)TiO3 (BST) thin films patterned in the form of nanotubes (“honeycomb”) on Ti substrates is reported. In this two-step method, the Ti substrate is first anodized to produce a surface layer (∼300 nm thickness) of amorphous titanium oxide nanotube (∼100 nm diameter) arrays. In the second step, the anodized substrate is subjected to hydrothermal treatment in aqueous Ba(OH)2 + Sr(OH)2 at 200 °C, where the nanotube arrays serve as templates for their topotactic (shape-preserving) hydrothermal conversion to polycrystalline BST nanotubes. A simple geometrical model is proposed to elucidate the mechanism of the hydrothermal growth of BST nanotubes. This opens the possibility of tailoring the titanium oxide nanotube arrays and of using various precursor solutions and their combinations in the hydrothermal bath to produce ordered, patterned thin-film structures of various Ti-containing ceramics. These could find use not only in a variety of electronic, optoelectronic, and sensor device applications but also in biomedical and catalysis applications, where patterned thin films are desirable.

(Received June 28 2004)

(Accepted April 20 2005)

(Online publication August 2005)

Key Words:

  • Ceramic;
  • Hydrothermal;
  • Thin film


c1 Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: Present address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1178. This author was an editor of this journal during the review and decision stage. For the JMR policy on review and publication of manuscripts authored by editors, please refer to