Behavioral and Brain Sciences

The evolutionary route to self-deception: Why offensive versus defensive strategy might be a false alternative

Ulrich Freya1 and Eckart Volanda1

a1 Zentrum für Philosophie und Grundlagen der Wissenschaft, Universität Giessen, D-35394 Giessen, Germany.


Self-deception may be the result of social manipulation and conflict management of social in-groups. Although self-deception certainly has offensive and defensive aspects, a full evolutionary understanding of this phenomenon is not possible until strategies of other parties are included into a model of self-perception and self-representation.