School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. email@example.com http://www.psy.uq.edu.au/directory/index.html?id=39
Humans are not the only animals to deceive, though we might be the only ones that lie. The arms race von Hippel & Trivers (VH&T) propose may have only started during hominin evolution. VH&T offer a powerful theory, and I suggest it can be expanded to explain why there are systematic biases in human foresight.