RepRap – the replicating rapid prototyper

Rhys Jonesa1, Patrick Haufea2, Edward Sellsa3, Pejman Iravania1, Vik Ollivera4, Chris Palmera5 and Adrian Bowyera1 c1

a1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bath University, Bath BA2 7AY, UK

a2 Faculty 5, Department of Biomimetics/Biological Materials, Hochschule Bremen, University of Applied Sciences, Neustadtswall 30, D-28199 Bremen, Germany

a3 Bits From Bytes Ltd., Unit 17 Hither Green Industrial Estate, Clevedon, North Somerset BS21 6XU, UK

a4 Diamond Age Solutions Ltd., 72 Warner Park Avenue, Laingholm, Waitakere, New Zealand

a5 Boatmans Row, Astley Green, Tyldesley, Manchester M29 7JQ, UK


This paper presents the results to date of the RepRap project – an ongoing project that has made and distributed freely a replicating rapid prototyper. We give the background reasoning that led to the invention of the machine, the selection of the processes that we and others have used to implement it, the designs of key parts of the machine and how these have evolved from their initial concepts and experiments, and estimates of the machine's reproductive success out in the world up to the time of writing (about 4500 machines in two and a half years).

(Received October 27 2010)

(Online publication January 14 2011)


  • Self-replicating machine;
  • Rapid prototyping;
  • Additive fabrication;
  • Biomimetics;
  • Mutualism;
  • Open-source;
  • Free software;
  • Fused-filament fabrication


c1 Corresponding author. E-mail: