Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation in silver and gold nanoparticles produces strong extinction and scattering spectra that in recent years have been used for important sensing and spectroscopy applications. This article describes the fabrication, characterization, and computational electrodynamics of plasmonic materials that take advantage of this concept.Two applications of these plasmonic materials are presented: (1) the development of an ultrasensitive nanoscale optical biosensor based on LSPR wavelength-shift spectroscopy and (2) the use of plasmon-sampled and wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy (SERES) to provide new insight into the electromagnetic-field enhancement mechanism.
Amanda J. Haes is a National Research Council postdoctoral fellow at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. She received her BA degree in chemistry and physics from Wartburg College in 1999 and her MS and PhD degrees in chemistry from Northwestern University in 2001 and 2004, respectively. Her research interests include nanoscience, plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, and the integration of lithographic, microscopic, and spectroscopic techniques for biological and chemical sensor development. She is a recipient of the Northwestern University Chemistry Department Award for Excellence in Graduate Research (2004), a Materials Research Society Graduate Student Gold Award (2003), an American Chemical Society Division of Analytical Chemistry and Dupont Research Fellowship (2003), and a Kirkbright Bursary Award from the Association of British Spectroscopists (2004).
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Christy L. Haynes is currently a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellow in R. Mark Wightman's laboratory at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and will join the University of Minnesota in fall 2005 as an assistant professor of chemistry. She received her BA degree in chemistry from Macalester College in 1998, and her MS and PhD degrees in chemistry from Northwestern University in 1999 and 2003, respectively. Her research interests include nanoscience, plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, electrochemistry, neurochemistry, and the application of Raman spectroscopy to problems in neurobiology.
Haynes is the recipient of a Nobel Laureate Signature Award for Graduate Education from the American Chemical Society (2005), a Northwestern University Chemistry Department Award for Excellence in Graduate Research (2003), a Northwestern University Presidential Fellowship (2002), a Kirkbright Bursary Award from the Association of British Spectroscopists (2002), a Graduate Student Gold Award from the Materials Research Society (2002), and an American Chemical Society Analytical Chemistry Division Fellowship (2001).
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Adam D. McFarland is a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. He received his BS degree in chemistry from the University of Dayton in 1999 and his MS and PhD degrees in chemistry from Northwestern University in 2001 and 2004, respectively. His research interests focus on the development of analytical techniques and instrumentation for the characterization of nanoscale materials. His past research includes the utilization of single nanoparticles as chemical sensing platforms and the mechanistic study of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. He is currently designing and constructing a lowtemperature scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanoscale materials and molecular electronics.
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George C. Schatz is the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University. He is a theoretician who studies the optical, structural, and energetic properties of nanomaterials, and he has contributed to theories of dynamical processes important in chemistry, including gas-phase and condensed-phase reactions, energy transfer processes, transport phenomena, and photochemistry. In the field of nanoscience, he has specialized in computational electrodynamic studies of noble metal nanoparticles, nanoholes, and other nanostructured materials. He has contributed to theories of DNA melting and nanoparticle aggregates, and he has studied the mechanical properties of nanotubes and thin films.
Schatz is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2002), the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Sciences (2001), and is editor in chief of the Journal of Physical Chemistry.
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Richard P. Van Duyne is the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University. He is credited with the discovery of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and the invention of nanosphere lithography (NSL); he also developed ultrasensitive nanosensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy. His research interests include surfaceenhanced spectroscopy, nanofabrication, nanoparticle optics, combined scanning probe microscopy/dRaman microscopy, Raman spectroscopy of massselected clusters, ultrahigh-vacuum surface science, structure and function of biomolecules on surfaces, and surfaceenhanced spectroscopic methods for chemical and biological sensing.
Van Duyne is the recipient of several awards, including the Nobel Laureate Signature Award for Graduate Education from the American Chemical Society (2005), election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2004), and the Earle K. Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy from the American Physical Society (2004).
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Shengli Zou received his BS and MS degrees in physical chemistry from Shandong University in China and a PhD degree in physical chemistry from Emory University (with Joel M. Bowman) in 2003. He has been a postdoctoral fellow in George C. Schatz's lab at Northwestern University since December 2002. His research interests include the optical properties of nanoparticles, nanoparticle arrays, and nanoparticles for biological sensing. He is also interested in the self-assembly of biomolecules.
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