MRS Bulletin

Technical Feature

Technical Feature

New Frontiers of Metamaterials: Design and Fabrication

Pratik Chaturvedi, Keng Hsu, Shu Zhang and Nicholas Fang

Abstract

Artificially engineered metamaterials have emerged with properties and functionalities previously unattainable in natural materials. The scientific breakthroughs made in this new class of electromagnetic materials are closely linked with progress in developing physics-driven design and novel parallel fabrication methods. For example, a smooth superlens has been demonstrated with 30-nm imaging resolution, or 1/12 of the corresponding wavelength, far below the diffraction limit. Similarly, a photoswitchable optical negative-index material has been printed, showing a remarkable tuning range of refractive index in the communication wavelength. New frontiers are being explored as intrinsic limitations challenge the scaling of microwave metamaterial designs to optical frequencies. These novel metamaterials promise an entire new generation of passive and active optical elements, such as paper-thin superlenses and modulators.

Pratik Chaturvedi can be reached at 158 Mechanical Engineering Building, MC-244, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA; tel. 217-265-0570, fax 217-244-6534, and e-mail pchatur2@illi-nois.edu.

Chaturvedi is currently a PhD degree candidate in mechanical engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). He received his MS degree in mechanical engineering from UIUC in 2006, and his BTech degree in mechanical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India, in 2004. His research interests include metamaterials, subdiffraction imaging, nanoplasmonics, and nanofabrication. Chaturvedi's accomplishments include demonstration of λ/12 (30 nm) sub-diffraction resolution with optical superlens imaging.

Keng Hsu can be reached at 4400 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA; tel. 217-333-3224, and e-mail khsu5@illinois.edu.

Hsu is a PhD degree candidate in the Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his MS and BS degrees in mechanical engineering from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. Hsu's accomplishments include the demonstration of solidstate electrochemical nanoimprint technology, and printable plasmonic and surface-enhanced Raman substrates.

Shu Zhang can be reached at 27 Mechanical Engineering Building, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA; tel. 217-265-0570, and e-mail szhang6@illinois.edu.

Zhang is a PhD degree candidate in the Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She finished her under-graduate study in the Department of Electrical Engineering and earned her master's degree from the Institute of Acoustics at Nanjing University, China. She is currently working on the design of an ultrasound metamaterial lens by the transmission line method. She also is interested in optical negative index waveguide structure.

Nicholas Fang can be reached at the Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1206 W. Green St., MC-244, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; tel. 217-265-8262, fax 217-244-6534, and e-mail nicfang@illinois.edu.

Fang is an assistant professor of mechanical science and engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his PhD degree in mechanical engineering in 2004 from the University of California–Los Angeles. Fang received his MS degree in 1998 and his BS degree in physics from Nanjing University, China, in 1996. He also served as a co-organizer of the 2006 MRS Spring Meeting symposium on optical negative index materials. His research highlights include the first demonstration of optical superlensing and the invention of solidstate electrochemical nanoimprint technology. Fang is the recipient of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering Pi Tau Sigma Gold Medal of 2006.

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