Journal of Materials Research


Fabrication of continuous ultrathin ferroelectric films by chemical solution deposition methods

J. Ricotea1 c1, S. Holgadoa2, Z. Huanga3, P. Ramosa4, R. Fernándeza5 and M.L. Calzadaa5

a1 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain

a2 Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain

a3 Department of Materials, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, United Kingdom

a4 Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Spain

a5 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain


The integration of ferroelectrics in nanodevices requires firstly the preparation of high-quality ultrathin films. Chemical solution deposition is considered a rapid and cost-effective technique for preparing high-quality oxide films, but one that has traditionally been regarded as unsuitable, or at least challenging, for fabricating films with good properties and thickness below 100 nm. In the present work we explore the deposition of highly diluted solutions of pure and Ca-modified lead titanates to prepare ultrathin ferroelectric films, the thickness of which is controlled by the concentration of the precursor solution. The results show that we are able to obtain single crystalline phase continuous films down to 18 nm thickness, one of the lowest reported using these methods. Below that thickness, the films start to be discontinuous, which is attributed to a microstructural instability that can be controlled by an adequate tailoring of the processing conditions. The effect of the reduction of thickness on the piezoelectric behavior is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. The results indicate that films retain a significant piezoelectric activity regardless of their low thickness, which is promising for their eventual integration in nanodevices, for example, as transducer elements in nanoelectromechanical systems.

(Received March 13 2008)

(Accepted July 11 2008)

Key Words:

  • Ferroelectric;
  • Piezoresponse;
  • Solution deposition


c1 Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: