British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Behaviour, Appetite and Obesity

Milk supplementation facilitates appetite control in obese women during weight loss: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Jo-Anne Gilberta1, Denis R. Joanissea1, Jean-Philippe Chaputa2, Pierre Miegueua3, Katherine Cianflonea3, Natalie Almérasa3 and Angelo Tremblaya1a2 c1

a1 Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada G1K 7P4

a2 Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark

a3 Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Hôpital Laval, 2725 chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, QC, Canada G1V 4G5

Abstract

Dairy products provide Ca and protein which may facilitate appetite control. Conversely, weight loss is known to increase the motivation to eat. This randomised controlled trial verified the influence of milk supplementation on appetite markers during weight loss. Low Ca consumer women participated in a 6-month energy-restricted programme ( − 2508 kJ/d or − 600 kcal/d) and received either a milk supplementation (1000 mg Ca/d) or an isoenergetic placebo (n 13 and 12, respectively). Fasting appetite sensations were assessed by visual analogue scales. Anthropometric parameters and fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and cortisol were measured as well. Both groups showed a significant weight loss (P < 0·0001). In the milk-supplemented group, a time × treatment interaction effect showed that weight loss with milk supplementation induced a smaller increase in desire to eat and hunger (P < 0·05). Unlike the placebo group, the milk-supplemented group showed a lower than predicted decrease in fullness ( − 17·1 v. − 8·8; − 12·7 v. 3·3 mm, P < 0·05, measured v. predicted values, respectively). Even after adjustment for fat mass loss, changes in ghrelin concentration predicted those in desire to eat (r 0·56, P < 0·01), hunger (r 0·45, P < 0·05) and fullness (r − 0·40, P < 0·05). However, the study did not show a between-group difference in the change in ghrelin concentration in response to the intervention. These results show that milk supplementation attenuates the orexigenic effect of body weight loss. Trial registration code: ClinicalTrials.gov NTC00729170.

(Received January 12 2010)

(Revised May 05 2010)

(Accepted July 08 2010)

Correspondence:

c1 Corresponding author: A. Tremblay, email angelo.tremblay@kin.msp.ulaval.ca

Footnotes

Abbreviations: CLA, conjugated linoleic acid; E%, energy percentage; VAS, visual analogue scales

Work performed at the Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Hôpital Laval, 2725 chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, QC, Canada G1V 4G5.