a1 Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2650. [email protected] http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/phonlab/users/ohala/index3.html
Many species' non-threat facial expression involves an open mouth and retracted lip corners – the smile. This served to make an accompanying vocalization sound like it originated from a smaller vocalizer. That such signals are deceptive and benefit primarily the signaler undermines the notion that the perception of the smile employs embodied simulation of the smiler's state.