Journal of Materials Research

Articles

In situ transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy studies of interfaces in Li ion batteries: Challenges and opportunities

C.M. Wanga1 c1, W. Xua2, J. Liua3, D.W. Choia4, B. Arey, L.V. Sarafa5, J.G. Zhang, Z.G. Yanga6, S. Thevuthasan, D.R. Baera7 and N. Salmona8

a1 Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a2 Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a3 Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a4 Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a5 Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a6 Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a7 Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352

a8 Hummingbird Scientific, Lacey, Washington 98516

Abstract

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy have been evolved to a stage such that they can be routinely used to probe the structure and composition of the materials with the resolution of a single atomic column. However, a direct in situ TEM observation of structural evolution of the materials in a lithium ion battery during dynamic operation of the battery has never been reported. In this paper, we report the results of exploring the in situ TEM techniques for observation of interfaces in the lithium ion battery during the operation of the battery. A miniature battery was fabricated using a single nanowire and an ionic liquid electrolyte. The structure and composition of the interface across the anode and the electrolyte was studied using TEM imaging, electron diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In addition, we also explored the possibilities of carrying out in situ TEM studies of lithium ion batteries with a solid state electrolyte.

(Received January 15 2010)

(Accepted March 05 2010)

Key Words:

  • Intercalation;
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM);
  • Energy storage
0Comments