British Journal of Nutrition

  • British Journal of Nutrition / Volume 104 / Supplement S2 / August 2010, pp S1-S63
  • Copyright © ILSI Europe 2010. The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
  • DOI: (About DOI), Published online: 04 October 2010

Full Papers

Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits

Marcel Roberfroida1, Glenn R. Gibsona2, Lesley Hoylesa2, Anne L. McCartneya2, Robert Rastalla2, Ian Rowlanda2, Danielle Wolversa3, Bernhard Watzla4, Hania Szajewskaa5, Bernd Stahla6, Francisco Guarnera7, Frederique Respondeka8, Kevin Whelana9, Veronique Coxama10, Marie-Jeanne Daviccoa10, Laurent Léotoinga10, Yohann Wittranta10, Nathalie M. Delzennea11, Patrice D. Cania11, Audrey M. Neyrincka11 and Agnes Meheusta12 c1

a1 Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

a2 Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, School of Chemistry, Food Biosciences and Pharmacy, The University of Reading, PO Box 226, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AP, UK

a3 Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

a4 Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institute, Karlsruhe, Germany

a5 Department of Paediatrics, The Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

a6 Danone Research – Centre for Specialised Nutrition, Friedrichsdorf, Germany

a7 Digestive System Research Unit, Hospital General Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

a8 Syral, Marckolsheim, France

a9 Nutritional Sciences Division, King's College London, London SE1 9NH, UK

a10 INRA, UMR 1019 Nutrition Humaine, F-63122 Saint-Genès Champanelle, France

a11 Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, PMNT-7369 School of Pharmacy, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

a12 ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l., Avenue E. Mounier 83, Box 6, 1200 Brussels, Belgium


The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, ‘normobiosis’ characterises a composition of the gut ‘ecosystem’ in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to ‘dysbiosis’, in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in ‘prebiotic effects’), defined as: ‘The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.’ Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where a prebiotic effect has tentatively been investigated for potential health benefits. The prebiotic effect has been shown to associate with modulation of biomarkers and activity(ies) of the immune system. Confirming the studies in adults, it has been demonstrated that, in infant nutrition, the prebiotic effect includes a significant change of gut microbiota composition, especially an increase of faecal concentrations of bifidobacteria. This concomitantly improves stool quality (pH, SCFA, frequency and consistency), reduces the risk of gastroenteritis and infections, improves general well-being and reduces the incidence of allergic symptoms such as atopic eczema. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Promising beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some preliminary studies, including changes in gut microbiota composition (especially increase in bifidobacteria concentration). Often associated with toxic load and/or miscellaneous risk factors, colon cancer is another pathology for which a possible role of gut microbiota composition has been hypothesised. Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies.


c1 Correspondence: ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l. - Avenue E. Mounier 83, Box 6 - 1200 Brussels - Belgium Email: - Fax: +32 2 762 00 44


Abbreviations: ACF, aberrant crypt foci; BMD, bone mineral density; CD, Crohn's disease; CFU, colony forming unit; DGGE, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; DMH, dimethylhydrazine; DP, degree of polymerisation; FOS, fructo-oligosaccharides; GALT, gut-associated lymphoid tissue; GI, gastro-intestinal; GLP, glucagon-like peptide; GOS, galacto-oligosaccharides; IBS, irritable bowel syndrome; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; ITF, inulin-type fructans; LPS, lipopolysaccharides; NK, natural killer; OTU, operational taxonomic units; PYY, peptide YY; RCT, randomized controlled trials; TER, trans-epithelial resistance; TLR, toll-like receptor; UC, ulcerative colitis