Epidemiology and Infection

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Epidemiology and Infection (2010), 138:1630-1636 Cambridge University Press
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Original Papers

Nipah virus

Nipah virus outbreak with person-to-person transmission in a district of Bangladesh, 2007

N. HOMAIRAa1a2 c1, M. RAHMANa1, M. J. HOSSAINa2, J. H. EPSTEINa3a4, R. SULTANAa2, M. S. U. KHANa2, G. PODDERa2, K. NAHARa2, B. AHMEDa1, E. S. GURLEYa2, P. DASZAKa4, W. I. LIPKINa5, P. E. ROLLINa6, J. A. COMERa6, T. G. KSIAZEKa6a7 and S. P. LUBYa2a6

a1 Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) Dhaka, Bangladesh
a2 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh
a3 The Consortium for Conservation Medicine (CCM), New York, USA
a4 Wildlife Trust, New York, NY USA
a5 Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, USA
a6 Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Disease, National Centre for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA
a7 Galveston National Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Galveston TX, USA
Article author query
homaira n [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
rahman m [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
hossain mj [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
epstein jh [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
sultana r [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
khan msu [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
podder g [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
nahar k [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
ahmed b [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
gurley es [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
daszak p [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
lipkin wi [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
rollin pe [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
comer ja [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
ksiazek tg [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
luby sp [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]


In February 2007 an outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis in Thakurgaon District of northwest Bangladesh affected seven people, three of whom died. All subsequent cases developed illness 7–14 days after close physical contact with the index case while he was ill. Cases were more likely than controls to have been in the same room (100% vs. 9·5%, OR undefined, P<0·001) and to have touched him (83% vs. 0%, OR undefined, P<0·001). Although the source of infection for the index case was not identified, 50% of Pteropus bats sampled from near the outbreak area 1 month after the outbreak had antibodies to NiV confirming the presence of the virus in the area. The outbreak was spread by person-to-person transmission. Risk of NiV infection in family caregivers highlights the need for infection control practices to limit transmission of potentially infectious body secretions.

(Accepted March 09 2010)

(Online publication April 12 2010)

Key Words:Bangladesh; Nipah virus; person-to-person transmission


c1 Author for correspondence: Dr N. Homaira, Programme on Infectious Disease and Vaccine Sciences, Health System and Infectious Disease Division, ICDDR,B, 68, Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. (Email: nhomaira@icddrb.org)