Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review

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Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review (2010), 21:242-262 Cambridge University Press
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010
doi:10.1017/S0965539510000069

Research Article

HYPOXIC ISCHAEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN NEWBORN INFANTS


NAZAKAT MERCHANTa1 and DENIS AZZOPARDIa1 c1

a1 Institute of Clinical Sciences, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London.
Article author query
merchant n [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]
azzopardi d [PubMed]  [Google Scholar]

Neonatal encephalopathy has been defined as “a clinically defined syndrome of disturbed neurological function in the earliest days of life in the term infant, manifested by difficulty with initiating and maintaining respiration, depression of tone and reflexes, sub normal level of consciousness and often seizures”. It occurs in about 2–3 per 1000 births in developed countries. In developing countries, neonatal encephalopathy accounts for the largest number of deaths in infancy and childhood – approximately 1 million per year worldwide. Neonatal encephalopathy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is an important predictor of long term neurodevelopmental disability in near- and full-term newborn infants. Fifteen to 20 percent of infants with neonatal encephalopathy die in the neonatal period, and a further 25 percent have permanent neurologic deficits.

(Online publication May 19 2010)

Correspondence:

c1 Denis Azzopardi, Division of Neonatal Medicine, 5th Floor, Ham House, Hammersmith Hospital, DuCane Road, London W12 0HS, United Kingdom. Email address: d.azzopardi@imperial.ac.uk