Public Health Nutrition

Biological and behavioural determinants

Dietary patterns and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case–control study

Bahareh Hajizadeha1a2 c1, Bahram Rashidkhania2, Anahita H Rada2, Seyed M Moasheria3 and Hojjatollah Sabooria1

a1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

a2 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 19826-19573, Tehran, Iran

a3 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective We conducted a hospital-based, case–control study to examine the association between dietary patterns and the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iran.

Design A total of forty-seven patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and ninety-six controls underwent face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis was used to detect dietary patterns. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI.

Results We defined two major dietary patterns in this population: ‘healthy diet’ (high in vegetables, nuts, fruits, low-fat dairy and fish) and ‘western diet’ (high in solid oil, sugar, sweets, tea, eggs, pickles and processed meat). Both healthy and western pattern scores were divided into two categories (based on medians). Higher healthy pattern scores were significantly associated with decreased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (high: second median v. low: first median, OR = 0·17, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·98). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was observed with the western pattern (high: second median v. low: first median, OR = 10·13, 95 % CI 8·45, 43·68).

Conclusions The results of the present study suggested that diet might be associated with oesophageal carcinoma.

(Received January 21 2009)

(Accepted January 06 2010)

(Online publication March 01 2010)


c1 Corresponding author: Email