a1 Harvard University
The historical clustering of the transitions to democracy of Spain, Portugal, and Greece—all having taken place in the mid-1970s—encourages scholars to search for common causes, patterns, and paths of development. But important differences remain between the cases. Analytical distinctions include the difference between state and regime, and the contrast between regime crises of failure and crises of historical obsolescence. These distinctions make it possible to delineate divergent causes, actors, trajectories, and outcomes for the three cases of redemocratization.
Robert M. Fishman is Associate Professor of Government and of Social Studies at Harvard University. He is the author of Working Class Organization and the Return to Democracy in Spain (1990) and is currently studying the changing relations between labor and intellectuals in Western Europe, and the political aftermath of failed revolutionary attempts. During 1989–1990, he is a Visiting Research Associate at the Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Juan March Institute, Madrid.
* For helpful comments on an earlier draft of this essay I thank Jose Alvarez Junco, H. E. Chehabi, Jeff Goodwin, Peter Hall, Juan Linz, Ted Perlmutter, Edward Robbins, Theda Skocpol, Basilios Tsingos, and members of the CROPSO seminar, Harvard University.